MOTS-C (mitochondrial open-reading-frame of the twelve S rRNA-C) is a recently discovered peptide that is believed to play a significant role in regulating metabolism and aging. It is a mitochondrial-encoded peptide that is released into the bloodstream and regulates insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism. Research suggests that MOTS-C may have potential therapeutic benefits in treating age-related metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, it may have anti-aging properties by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and reducing oxidative stress. Although the mechanisms of action are still being studied, MOTS-C shows great promise as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic and age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and even kidney disease.
How Does MOTS-C Work?
MOTS-C is a 16-amino-acid peptide that is naturally produced in your body by the mitochondria in your cells. MOTS-C works through various mechanisms to regulate metabolism and aging in the body.
One mechanism by which MOTS-C works is by regulating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway. AMPK is a metabolic sensor that is activated during periods of energy stress, such as fasting or exercise. Activation of AMPK leads to increased glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation, which helps to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. MOTS-C has been shown to activate AMPK in various tissues, including skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, thereby increasing glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation.
Another way MOTS-C works is by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, which is the process by which new mitochondria are formed in cells. Mitochondria are responsible for generating energy in cells, and their dysfunction has been linked to various age-related diseases. MOTS-C has been shown to increase the number of mitochondria in cells, which can improve cellular energy production and reduce oxidative stress.
MOTS-C appears to have anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of many age-related diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown that MOTS-C can reduce inflammation in various tissues, including adipose tissue and liver, which may contribute to its therapeutic effects.
Overall, the mechanisms by which MOTS-C works in the body are still being studied, but research suggests that it may have therapeutic benefits for age-related metabolic disorders and may have anti-aging properties by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and reducing inflammation.
What Are The Benefits of MOTS-C?
MOTS-C is a mitochondrial-encoded peptide that has recently gained attention for its potential therapeutic benefits on the human body. Here are some of the benefits that MOTS-C may provide:
- Improved Insulin Sensitivity: MOTS-C has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells, which could help prevent and treat type 2 diabetes.
- Reduced Inflammation: MOTS-C has been found to have anti-inflammatory effects, reducing inflammation in various tissues, including adipose tissue and the liver.
- Increased Metabolism: MOTS-C has been shown to increase mitochondrial biogenesis, which can improve cellular energy production and increase metabolism.
- Potential Anti-Aging Effects: MOTS-C may have anti-aging properties by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and reducing oxidative stress, which are both linked to aging.
- Improved Muscle Function: MOTS-C has been shown to improve muscle function and endurance in mice, which could have implications for improving exercise capacity in humans.
- Possible Neuroprotective Effects: MOTS-C may have neuroprotective effects by improving mitochondrial function in the brain, which could have implications for neurodegenerative diseases.
- Benefits on Kidney Health and Function: Chronic kidney disease also leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced expression of MOTS-c
MOTS-C, Diabetes & Insulin Sensitivity
MOTS-C has been shown to have a positive effect on insulin sensitivity, making it a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels by allowing glucose to enter cells, where it can be used for energy. In individuals with insulin resistance, cells become less responsive to insulin, leading to elevated blood glucose levels and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
MOTS-C appears to improve insulin sensitivity by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, which is involved in regulating cellular energy metabolism. Activation of AMPK increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells, improves mitochondrial function, and promotes fatty acid oxidation.
In addition to activating AMPK, MOTS-C also stimulates the expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism, such as glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). This helps to increase the uptake of glucose into cells and promote insulin sensitivity.
Several studies have demonstrated the potential of MOTS-C as a therapeutic agent for diabetes and metabolic disorders. One study in diabetic mice found that treatment with MOTS-C improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and decreased body weight.
Another study showed that MOTS-C administration improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese mice, potentially by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism.
Overall, these findings suggest that MOTS-C has the potential to improve insulin sensitivity and prevent the development of type 2 diabetes, making it a promising area of research for the treatment of metabolic disorders.
MOTS-C as an Anti-Inflammatory
MOTS-C has been found to have anti-inflammatory properties, making it a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
Inflammation is a natural immune response to infection, injury or tissue damage, but chronic inflammation can lead to the development of a range of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders.
MOTS-C appears to reduce inflammation by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). These cytokines play a key role in the development of chronic inflammation and are known to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders.
In one study, MOTS-C administration was found to reduce inflammation and improve glucose tolerance. The researchers also observed a decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the treated mice.
Another study showed that MOTS-C inhibits ROS production by activating PGC-1α, resulting in an anti-inflammatory effect (decreases levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, while increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10)
These findings suggest that MOTS-C has the potential to reduce inflammation and improve health outcomes in individuals with inflammatory disorders.
MOTS-C and Obesity
MOTS-C has been shown to have potential benefits for weight loss and metabolic health. One of the ways in which MOTS-C appears to promote weight loss is by improving energy metabolism.
MOTS-C significantly decreased the rate of obesity and significantly reduced basal levels of circulating IL-6 and TNF-α associated with the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. In addition, MOTS-c treatment prevented High Fat Diet-induced hyperinsulinemia, indicating improved glucose homeostasis. Overall, MOTS-c prevented HFD-induced obesity through increased energy expenditure, improved glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity.
Furthermore, MOTS-C has been found to improve insulin sensitivity, which is the ability of the body to respond to insulin and regulate blood sugar levels. Insulin resistance, which is a condition in which the body’s cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, is often associated with obesity and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. By improving insulin sensitivity, MOTS-C may help to regulate blood sugar levels and prevent the development of metabolic disorders.
Moreover, MOTS-C has been shown to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, which are both known to contribute to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. By reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, MOTS-C may help to improve metabolic health and promote weight loss.
MOTS-C & Kidney Disease
MOTS-C has been shown to have potential therapeutic benefits for individuals with kidney disease.
Kidney disease, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time. It is a major public health issue, affecting millions of people worldwide, and can lead to serious complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia, and bone disease.
MOTS-C has been shown to improve kidney function in animal models of CKD. In one study, MOTS-C treatment reduced inflammation and improved kidney function in mice with renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, a common cause of CKD. The researchers also observed a decrease in oxidative stress and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity in the treated mice.
In another study, MOTS-C administration was found to reduce fibrosis, a key feature of CKD, in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction. The researchers also observed a decrease in inflammation and an increase in autophagy, a cellular process that helps to remove damaged proteins and organelles, in the treated mice.
MOTS-C may improve kidney function by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis, and by promoting autophagy. These findings suggest that MOTS-C has the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of CKD. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying its effects on kidney function and to evaluate its safety and efficacy in humans.
Side Effects of MOTS-C
Currently, there is no information available on the potential side effects of MOTS-C in humans, as clinical studies are still in their early stages. However, based on animal studies, MOTS-C appears to be safe and well-tolerated.
In a recent study, mice were treated with different doses of MOTS-C for six weeks, and no adverse effects were observed at any of the doses tested.
Moreover, MOTS-C is a naturally occurring peptide that is produced by the human body, which suggests that it may be well-tolerated and less likely to cause adverse effects compared to synthetic drugs.
However, it is important to note that all drugs and supplements, even those that are natural, have the potential to cause side effects. Therefore, individuals who are interested in using MOTS-C should consult with their healthcare provider first, especially if they have any underlying medical conditions or are taking any medications.
Dosage and How to Take MOTS-C
The optimal dosage of MOTS-C for humans has not yet been determined as clinical studies are still ongoing. However, in animal studies, doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg have been used.
Here is the dosage that some of the experts in the field of Peptides are recommending:
Ben Greenfield in his book Boundless: 10 mg of MOTS-C injected once a week, ideally right before endurance exercise for the added mitochondrial benefit, can be repeated for up to 10 weeks in a row every year.
Dr. William Seeds in his book Peptide Protocols, Volume 1: 5 mg of MOTS-C injected subcutaneously 3 times per week on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule for 4-6 weeks, followed by a once-a-week dose of 5 mg for 4 weeks.
Dr. Rob Kominiarek: 10 mg of MOTS-C injected subcutaneously into the abdomen once a week for 4 weeks straight, followed by a second 4-week cycle within a 12-month period.
I tend to follow Ben Greenfield’s recommendation and take 10mg of MOTS-C injected subcutaneously once a week. With peptides, it is better to start at a low dose and work up so I would suggest maybe starting with 5mg once a week and going from there. Better still find a Peptide knowledgeable integrative practitioner and work with them to find your optimal dose.
MOTS-C is typically administered subcutaneously, meaning it is injected under the skin.
It is important to note that MOTS-C is still in the early stages of research, and its safety and efficacy in humans have yet to be fully established. Therefore, individuals who are interested in using MOTS-C should consult with their healthcare provider first, especially if they have any underlying medical conditions or are taking any medications.
If you want more information on this amazing peptide then you can listen to Dr Morgan Camp and I discuss this on our YouTube channel